Discovered by Cabot in 1497. Sir Humphrey Gilbert established a short-lived colony on the island in 1583. Another attempt was made in 1610, by the Company of London. A more successful effort at colonization was that of Lord Baltimore in 1621. For a time the colony was governed by the so-called "Fishing Admirals," the most famous of whom was Richard Whitbourne, author of A Discourse and Discoverie of Newfoundland. French influence on the island dated from the founding of Placentia in 1660. In 1696 Iberville captured St. John's, and laid waste the coast settlements. St. John's was again captured by a French squadron, in 1760. A Legislative Assembly was granted to the colony in 1832 as a result of popular agitation; and responsible government established in 1855. Efforts to bring about the union of the island with Canada were made in 1864, and again in 1895, but without success.
   Index: B Withdraws from Confederation scheme, 185-186. F English settlements in, attacked, 46. L French successful in, 232. Md Withdraws from Confederation negotiations, 117; further negotiations unsuccessful, 146; fishery question, 303.
   Bib.: Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada; Prowse, History of Newfoundland; Reeves, Governors of Newfoundland; Dawson, Canada and Newfoundland; Hatton and Harvey, Newfoundland; Willson, The Tenth Island.

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